Adenauers Motivation für den deutsch-französischen Vertrag von 1963 (German Edition)

Guide Adenauers Motivation für den deutsch-französischen Vertrag von 1963 (German Edition)
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Bavaria as the third-largest state in Germany after enjoyed much warmer relations with France than the larger Prussia or Austria. From onwards the two countries were allies for almost a century, primarily to counter Habsburg ambitions to incorporate Bavaria into Austria. This alliance was renewed after the rise of Napoleon to power with a friendship treaty in and a formal alliance in August , pushed for by the Bavarian Minister Maximilian von Montgelas. With French support Bavaria was elevated to the status of a Kingdom in Bavaria supplied 30, troops for the invasion of Russia in , of which very few returned.

With the decline of the First French Empire Bavaria opted to switch sides on 8 October and left the French alliance in favour of an Austrian one through the Treaty of Ried. Although a German national state was on the horizon, the loyalties of the German population were primarily with smaller states. The French war against Prussia was justified through its role as guarantor of the Peace of Westphalia , and it was in fact fighting on the side of the majority of German states.

Frederick the Great led the defense of Prussia for 7 years, and though heavily outnumbered, defeated his French and Austrian invaders. Prussia and France clashed multiple times, and many more times than the other countries.

This started years of hatred between the two countries. Frederick the Great was soon respected by all of his enemies, and Napoleon himself used him as a model for battle. The civil population still regarded war as a conflict between their authorities, and did not so much distinguish between troops according to the side on which they fought but rather according to how they treated the local population. The personal contacts and mutual respect between French and Prussian officers did not stop entirely while they were fighting each other, and the war resulted in a great deal of cultural exchange between French occupiers and German population.

The Germans might have gained initial momentum but the German offense was halted by the French on their march during the battle of the Marne. The war ended with France victorious and Germans paying reparations. The French would remain under occupation from The D-Day Invasion jointly with the Operation Dragoon liberated France and from then on, it fought victorious with the Allies and gained a post-war occupation zone in Germany. The perception of war began to change after the French Revolution.

The French mass conscription for the Revolutionary Wars and the beginning formation of nation states in Europe made war increasingly a conflict between peoples rather than a conflict between authorities carried out on the backs of their subjects. Napoleon put an end to the millennium-old Holy Roman Empire in , forming his own Confederation of the Rhine , and reshaped the political map of the German states, which were still divided.

The wars, often fought in Germany and with Germans on both sides as in the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig, also marked the beginning of what was explicitly called French—German hereditary enmity. Napoleon directly incorporated German-speaking areas such as the Rhineland and Hamburg into his First French Empire and treated the monarchs of the remaining German states as vassals.

Modern German nationalism was born in opposition to French domination under Napoleon. In the recasting of the map of Europe after Napoleon's defeat, the German-speaking territories in the Rhineland adjoining France were put under the rule of Prussia. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, with the rise of mutually hostile modern nationalism , writers, historians and politicians in both countries tended to project their enmity backwards, regarded all history as a single, coherent and unbroken narrative of ongoing conflict, and re-interpreted the earlier history to fit into the concept of a "hereditary enmity".

But this concept only makes sense from approximately the time of the Franco-Prussian War of — During the first half of the 19th century, many Germans looked forward to a unification of the German states, though most German leaders and the foreign powers were opposed to it. The German nationalist movement believed that a united Germany would replace France as the dominant land power in Western Europe.

This argument was aided by demographic changes: since the Middle Ages, France had had the largest population in Western Europe, but in the 19th century its population stagnated a trend which continued until the second half of the 20th century , and the population of the German states overtook it and continued to rapidly increase. The eventual unification of Germany was triggered by the Franco-German War in and subsequent French defeat. German forces crushed the French armies at the Battle of Sedan.

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Finally, in the Treaty of Frankfurt , reached after a lengthy siege of Paris , France was forced to cede the partially Germanic-speaking Alsace-Lorraine territory consisting of most of Alsace and a quarter of Lorraine , and pay an indemnity of five billion francs to the newly declared German Empire. Thereafter, the German Empire was widely viewed as having replaced France as the leading land power in Europe. After the war and its highly antagonistic reverberations in the s, the relationship mellowed in the s. Germany and France became friendly; there was even some talk of an alliance, but no agreement was reached.

The issue of Alsace-Lorraine faded somewhat in importance, but the rapid growth in the population and economy of Germany left France increasingly far behind. In the s relationships remained good as Germany supported France during its difficulties with Britain over African colonies. The harmony collapsed in , when Germany took an aggressively hostile position to French claims to Morocco. The Allied victory saw France regain Alsace-Lorraine and briefly resume its old position as the leading land power on the European continent. France was the leading proponent of harsh peace terms against Germany at the Paris Peace Conference.

Since the war had been fought on French soil, it had destroyed much of French infrastructure and industry, and France had suffered the highest number of casualties proportionate to population. Much French opinion wanted the Rhineland, the section of Germany adjoining France and the old focus of French ambition, to be detached from Germany as an independent country; in the end they settled for a promise that the Rhineland would be demilitarized, and heavy German reparation payments. On the remote Eastern end of the German Empire, the Memel territory was separated from the rest of East Prussia and occupied by France before being annexed by Lithuania.

To alleged German failure to pay reparations under the Treaty of Versailles in Germany being accused of not having delivered telephone poles on time , France responded with the occupation of the Rhineland and the industrial Ruhr area of Germany, the center of German coal and steel production, until However, the UK and the US didn't favor these policies, seen as too pro-French so Germany soon recovered its old strength most of the war reparations were cancelled under the pressure of the UK and the US , then from under Adolf Hitler , began to pursue an aggressive policy in Europe. Meanwhile, France in the s was tired, politically divided, and above all dreaded another war, which the French feared would again be fought on their soil for the third time, and again destroy a large percentage of their young men.

France's stagnant population meant that it would find it difficult to withhold the sheer force of numbers of a German invasion; it was estimated Germany could put two men of fighting age in the field for every French soldier. Thus in the s the French, with their British allies, pursued a policy of appeasement of Germany, failing to respond to the remilitarization of the Rhineland , although this put the German army on a larger stretch of the French border. Finally, however, Hitler pushed France and Britain too far, and they jointly declared war when Germany invaded Poland in September But France remained exhausted and in no mood for a rerun of — When the Germans launched their blitzkrieg invasion of France in , the French Army crumbled within weeks, and with Britain retreating, an atmosphere of humiliation and defeat swept France.

On the other hand, the French Resistance conducted sabotage operations inside German-occupied France. To support the invasion of Normandy of , various groups increased their sabotage and guerrilla attacks; organizations such as the Maquis derailed trains, blew up ammunition depots, and ambushed Germans, for instance at Tulle.

A History of Franco-German Relations in Europe

The 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich came under constant attack and sabotage on their way across the country to Normandy, suspected the village of Oradour-sur-Glane of harboring terrorists, arms and explosives. In retaliation they decided to shoot all men, and burn alive all women and children in the church. There was also a free French army fighting with the Allies, numbering almost five hundred thousand men by June , one million by December and 1.

By the war's end, the French army occupied south-west Germany and a part of Austria. When Allied forces liberated Normandy and Provence in August , a victorious rebellion emerged in occupied Paris and national rejoicing broke out, as did a maelstrom of hatred directed at French people who had collaborated with the Germans most infamously, the shaving of the heads of French girls who had gone out with German soldiers.

Manual Adenauers Motivation für den deutsch-französischen Vertrag von 1963 (German Edition)

Some Germans taken as prisoners were killed by the resistance. Marshal Petain who was the military leader of Vichy France during the Second World War adopted the ideology of National Revolution which was originally based on a pro-German idea which had been known widely in the s. At that time Germany worked hard to spread it widely in Europe.

Later on the key members of the Committee became the key leaders of the French collaborators with Nazis after When Marshal Petain officially proclaimed the collaboration policy with Nazi Germany in June , he justified it to the French people as an essential need for the New European Order and to keep the unity of France.

Therefore, a group called "Group Collaboration" had been established during the war in France, and led a myriad of conferences promoting Pro-Europeanism. The very first time the expression "European Community" was used was at its first sessions, as well as many conferences and guests lectures sponsored by the German government, propagating French-German reconciliation, French renewal and European solidarity. For the first time in the history of Europe both Americans and Soviets had a strategic foothold on the continent.

Defeated Germany had American, British, French and Soviet troops in its territory and was divided into zones of occupation by the victorious powers. Soviet troops remained in those countries in Eastern Europe that had been liberated by the red army from the Nazis. The American troops also remained on the territory of the member countries which became later members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. The shape of western Europe was imposed by the events which occurred from Thus, there was a core of allied countries which recognized their ultimate dependence on each other and on the fate of Western Germany, a group of surrounding neutrals which were sharply isolated by the 'iron curtain' for their cooperation with eastern powers and an outer group of more reluctant allies.

This political geography imposed post war remained in place for decades; later on it witnessed a significant modification. Western European countries were also in urgent need of financial aid to recover and develop their economies that had been destroyed during the war.

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In addition to that, Western Europeans at that time were looking to achieve the economic performance of the United States. In German schools, for example, it is now common to combine geography with English. Robotics courses are also extremely popular — yet CLIL is possible in all school subjects. One thing that is always true is that it is worth beginning by taking small steps. It is one educational approach to integrated foreign language and subject-specific content learning, in this case through the medium of German as the foreign language.

The Dutch are well known for speaking good English.

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Buy Adenauers Motivation für den deutsch-französischen Vertrag von ( German Edition): Read Kindle Store Reviews - Results 1 - 16 of 49 Adenauers Motivation für den deutsch-französischen Vertrag von am Beispiel der Konzentrationslager und GULags (German Edition).

This is hardly surprising given that the Netherlands is a trading nation that enjoys extensive relations with its Anglo-Saxon neighbours to the west. Hungary has a long tradition of bilingual teaching at its grammar schools.

From “Hereditary Enemies” to Partners

It does not have to be like that, however. During the many years that I have worked as a German as a foreign language tutor at the LUH, I have observed time and time again that students had problems articulating full sentences with fluency and appropriate intonation. The European Commission has repeatedly emphasized the importance of bilingual teaching when it comes to promoting multilingualism and intercultural skills, and has provided impetus for this, among other things in the Draft Council Resolution on a European strategy for multilingualism from October There can be no doubt that CLIL has become established throughout Europe; perhaps to a greater or lesser extent in individual countries, but nonetheless with a convincing degree of diversity in terms of the individual variants.

So it is now time to think briefly about where we are now, and what the next step is. Depending on how content teaching is to be interwoven with language teaching in the classroom, lesson planning will need to reflect the framework conditions and the respective target group.

Advance and long-term consideration must be given not only to the learning environment and its underlying conditions, but also to methodological and didactic principles such as questions concerning progression, learning content and strategies among other things.

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The fundamental theses which the Central and Eastern European branches of the Goethe-Institut have developed in this context provide a good initial orientation. To date, there has been no description of the didactical and methodological principles of CLIL teaching, and thus also no classification of practical hints when it comes to justifying action and learning goals, skills and the linguistic impact of the corresponding CLIL subjects. Quick access: Go directly to content Alt 1 Go directly to second-level navigation Alt 3 Go directly to first-level navigation Alt 2.

Datenerhebung Deutsch 3. About us. Efficient and contemporary subject instruction in German To teach subject specific knowledge and a foreign language within the same lesson is the aim of new teaching methods such as CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning.

Deutsch-französische Freundschaft: 55. Jahre Élysée-Vertrag